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The Psychology and M.O. of International Human Sex Trafficking

International Sex TraffickingMother’s Day marks day one of Women’s Health Week, but one of the greatest modern dangers to women’s health – international human sex trafficking and prostitution slavery – receives less attention than it deserves. We previously discussed the issue of domestic (within the U.S.) trafficking, but we will discuss the broader subject of international human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation in greater detail today.


As we mentioned in the recent article on domestic human trafficking, sex trafficking is the most common form of modern-day slavery, especially targeting the female gender and children. Unlike the common image of young adult women, voluntarily and consensually prostituting themselves for monetary gain, made popular in movies and television shows of the 1970s and ’80s, the current commercial sex industry involve millions of domestic and international victims who are forced into prostitution and pornography for little if any money.

In addition, the typical American believes the young girls are beaten up and abused in distant lands, such as Eastern Europe, Asia, and Africa, but in reality, human sex trafficking takes place in major U.S. cities and small towns, right smack in the American civilians’ backyards. We explained the essential psychology behind the magnitude of the domestic problem in our last article on human sex trafficking, focusing on how female victims, with 12 to 14 as the average age of entry, are “recruited” and manipulated to stay in the forced sex industry. Our goals in this article are to expand on the scope of the problem in international human sex trafficking, which few people recognize is the fastest-growing business of “organized crime”, and to explain the major commonalities and differences between domestic and international human sex trafficking, with strong focus on the modus operandi of the offenders. 

The Media & General Public

The general public often have a lot of misconceptions on complicated issues, and the media frequently propagate the misconceptions further. The typical audience member has a short attention span and yearns for simple answers. Most people are black and white thinkers, and thus strongly want plain black and white answers. However, perhaps only 10 to 30% of life is relatively black and white, with the majority being gray. Nevertheless, reporters are required to cater to this fact of simplistic journalism; stick with the black and white, and avoid gray zone discussions. Thus, we may hear, “Blacks and Mexican gangs go to war over teen prostitution; film at 10”.

The general public members do not want to hear or read a long and complicated excursion with several explanations and with the impression of uncertainty and lack of closure. The public want to hear neat concise answers, even if they are untrue. The major reason is most people are not deep philosophical thinkers and thus they have relatively unsophisticated explanations, such as “foreigners are evil”, but then they also have a natural tendency to want to hear that they are right. Most people do not want to hear the complicated truth and are unhappy if told their beliefs or they are wrong. 

So why would the media present a misleading picture? The primary reason is the same one that motivates most of us – money! The media are involved in a highly competitive business, and thus the need for survival and to make money motivate them to come up with ingenious ways to stimulate the mass to refer to their newspaper, radio station, television channel, or blogsite for their daily news. In general, journalists are seldom rewarded for accurate, intelligent, thoughtful coverage of a topic; rather they are more often encouraged to develop news of high entertainment value in order to attract a larger membership, audience, or readership.

One must tell the public what they want to hear about and present issues as simplistic as possible, while conforming to the customers’ expectations, beliefs, wishes, biases, and prejudices, hence myths and misconceptions. To do otherwise kills business, and everyone is out of a job. News reporters are not in the business of journalism to educate the public; instead to inform the audience of what they already have preconceptions of. However, audience members want the facts right, but the world is full with facts, and so the journalists are expected to present a few – the most interesting ones. Journalists are given liberty to pick and choose the hot ones to whet the public’s appetite. Many people have racial and ethnic biases and tend to believe criminals are evil. So, journalists play on people’s biased beliefs and portray criminals as evil and depict blacks and Hispanics as especially heinous gangbangers. They even play with the public members’ emotions by spinning an issue into a highly charged and controversial one, such as police racism and celebrity scandals. But, in reality, human traffickers come from all races, ethnicities, and countries.

Domestic vs International Trafficking

International Sex TraffickingThe United States faces its own homegrown problem of interstate sex trafficking of the under-aged, as discussed in the last article, but also faces its involvement with international victims, with the U.S. serving as both the starting and ending point of the trafficking. Although domestic trafficking of minors is an escalating problem, the illegal and immoral activity is even a greater international problem of epidemic proportion, with most victims abducted or taken from the former Soviet Union, South and Southeast Asia, Latin America, and other under-developed nations, and then relocated to the consumers who reside in more developed countries, including North America, Asia, Western Europe, and the Middle East.

We can explore the international human trafficking problem with the similar model of illegal drug trafficking, i.e. to follow the supply chain and the demand side of the problem. Sigmund Freud alluded to the potential social problems of collective patients with “sexual neurosis” over a century ago. With the ridiculously huge numbers of people in the world with sexual neurosis who demand having sex with the under-aged, it opened a huge business opportunity for those who are willing to supply sexually neurotic people’s demand of minors for sexual intercourse. The huge demand and the large amount of money that sexually neurotic perpetrators are willing to pay in order to fulfill their pathological appetite enticed many people to organize in growing nationwide (domestic) and international crime networks of human trafficking to supply and meet the tremendous international demand side of the equation, and thus to actively participate in the currently third-largest criminal enterprise in the entire world.

Domestic human sex trafficking involves recruitment of victims from within the U.S., transportation and storage of victims at sites within the U.S., and finally dealing the victims’ sexual services to consumers all within the United States. Meanwhile, international human trafficking can take place with the entire supply chain outside of the United States. For instance, a victim can be abducted from Latin America and transported to Asia for pimping or sold to a sole client residing in Japan, and the victim never crosses or enters the U.S. border. Thus, the above case is often called foreign human trafficking. In other situations of international sex trafficking, the victim originates from the U.S. and is transported to another developed country. Or the victim originates from a foreign nation, but is trafficked into the United States. Therefore, at some point along the supply chain, international trafficking has a domestic component and crosses the U.S. border, either exiting or entering.

Foreign Human Sex Trafficking & Rescue

In contrast to domestic human sex trafficking, battling international sex trafficking requires an understanding of the wide range of foreign local customs and cultural practices, in addition to acknowledgement of the potentially greater vulnerability of corruption within various foreign law enforcement organizations. For instance, in many foreign nations, such as India, which has a long history of the common custom for parents to “arrange” or force their children into early marriage, and in other regions of the world, girls as young as 4 to 7 years old are forced to marry adult men, the issue cannot be successfully approached from a pure regulatory and law enforcement standpoint.

Forced marriages place young girls with many potential setbacks, such as losing their chance for school and education, deprived of their innocence and childhood, where they lose the opportunity to explore, play, and learn, forced into hard physical labor as an enslaved spouse in a mandatory marriage, and exposed to health risks, including contracting HIV and the medical consequences of early pregnancy, which is high risk because of the girl’s immature and thus narrow birth canal, and the high rate of subsequent  bladder fistulas, leading to infections and social embarrassment of urinary leakage, i.e. incontinence.

The motive of the parents who force their child into early marriage may not be entirely selfish and may be actually protective; for instance, in some cultures, such as in Ethiopia, parents may want their girls to marry young out of fear that unwed girls are often abducted and raped, while married girls are considered off-limits by the majority members of that culture, and to keep their girls from experiencing the social stigmatism of being unwed. The problem is quite different in India, where there is widespread child prostitution. Parents may intentionally sell their children to work in brothels, or other family members, friends, and acquaintances may convince, manipulate, or trick the parents into placing their child into the hands of the trusted offender in hope of a better life for the child, but the child is then sold or placed into brothels, where the general living conditions are inhumane. 

In our last article, we discussed the common problems that domestic law enforcement are confronted with, including the pimps’ use of manipulation, through the degradation-abandonment cycle, to control the child/teen prostitute’s actions of staying in a life of enslaved prostitution and of relentlessly protecting the pimps from the police. In comparison to domestic sex trafficking, international sex trafficking presents additional problems for those people who attempt to “rescue” child/teen prostitutes. In many under-developed geographic regions, a former child prostitute who escaped the life of enslaved prostitution grows up to be a young adult and leads the grassroots effort in rescuing other child prostitutes from their predicament.

These young adults, who were lucky enough to escape the degrading life of forced child prostitution, may gather a small band of volunteers who seek out child/teen prostitutes to rescue. However, they are faced with the same vicious degradation-abandonment cycle obstacle that domestic law enforcement have to overcome, and perhaps with the advantage of having lived “inside” enslaved prostitution, the former child prostitute has developed the keen skill or knack of identifying the “right” youths who are mentally prepared to escape, to rescue from the brothels. It can be a very dangerous task for the former child prostitute and her volunteers to pull off and successfully enter and rescue a specific targeted child/teen prostitute without encountering physical or violent resistance from the brothel owners and keepers.

A failed rescue attempt often dooms the targeted child prostitute, who is then relocated from city to city as a ploy to keep the child from being tracked down and rescued. In addition to the risk of targeting the “wrong” child for rescue, in which case, the child will physically resist the rescue attempt and instead try to remain with the brothel owner/manager, the rescuers are faced with the reality of corrupt individual police officers, who tip off the brothel owners/keepers before a raid of the brothel can be carried out successfully. Thus, the former child prostitute with the aid of volunteers may decide to pull off a rescue attempt on their own, without police protection, in order to avoid the issue of corrupted police who warn the brothels beforehand. In addition, despite a successful rescue, the former child prostitute or any of the volunteers in her rescue squad may become targets of violent retaliation, including assassination.

The Supply Chain of International Trafficking

Let’s dwell deeper into the supply chain of international human sex trafficking, using illegal drug trafficking as a model: manufacturers, traffickers, and dealers. The “manufacturers” in international human trafficking for sexual exploitation are often different than in domestic trafficking, in which we explained in the last article are most commonly products of a dysfunctional family or home where the child is abused physically, emotionally, sexually, or often a victim of all three forms of abuse, and thus the child goes from a bad to a worse situation by running away.

The second most common product of domestic prostitution slavery is the thrown-away youth, abandoned to live on the streets and at very high risk of becoming manipulated and trapped by a pimp, through initial recruitment by a “bottom” girl, into forced sexual slavery. In contrast to these domestic manufacturers of human trafficking, the international human sex trafficking manufacturers are the products of primarily being sold to the traffickers for monetary profit. The sellers at the starting point of the international human supply chain can be parents, family members, friends, acquaintances, and professional abductors and con artists.

The typical buyer on the demand side wants an “attractive product”, and thus many scams use modeling agencies or professional model photographers as the front to lure attractive young victims through their doors. The Internet may be the initial point of contact between perpetrator and victim, but eventually there has to be a physical meeting place – the modeling agencies or the modeling photographers’ office. The unwitting victims are lured to sign up for travel to remote exotic or adventurous places, where they are presumably going to meet influential figures in the modeling industry, but are instead led to the handlers or traffickers. In these cases, traffickers generally trick their victims into giving up their identity forms, such as drivers’ licenses, passports, and birth certificates, under the pretense of protecting the victims from losing such valuable means of identification. However, without any form of I.D., the teenagers have a difficult time finding opportunities to support themselves even if they escaped, especially in a foreign land, and thus often return to the trafficker.

The United States can be involved in either the early (manufacturing/recruiting) or the end phase (dealing/selling to particular clients) of the supply line, in addition to the middle phase of transportation and “storage” (trafficking) before the product is finally sold to the buyer. Professional con artists may lure an attractive product through the pretense of a date or getting romantically involved for the sole purpose of putting the product into the hands of the traffickers in exchange for a monetary “finder’s fee”. The con artist may also work for professional abductors and befriend the potential victim, for instance, by gaining her trust with his charms and offering to show her around in the foreign land that she is visiting, with the ultimate intent of setting her up at a pre-set time and place of the kidnappers’ choosing for professional abduction.

In general, traffickers are highly organized, with a hierarchy system like other criminal organizations that can manage competently the “manufacturer” phase, the actual trafficking, and finally placing the product into the consumer’s hand (dealing). Traffickers represent every social, ethnic, and racial group. Some offenders may belong to a small gang, while others are members of large nationwide or international criminal organizations, and some yet have no organized crime affiliation and are self-employed in their own “small business”, functioning alone or with a few helpers along the entire supply chain as the manufacturer/recruiter, transportation and storage, and dealer. It’s also important to note that traffickers do not come only from the male gender and that women also run many established human trafficking rings for sexual exploitation.

The primary motive for organized human sex traffickers is exactly the same as illegal drug traffickers – plain greed, while the primary motive for most consumers on the demand side is pathological sexual neurosis. The product – victims – are typically forced one way or another into the supply chain, followed by trafficking and ending up as enslaved sex providers. The victims’ motives can be quite psychologically complex, unconsciously driven by the degradation/abandonment cycle, and thus trying to satisfy their pimp, madam, brothel owner/manager, or husband is usually a key motive in order for them to survive and maintain the status quo.

Foreign Cultural Customs & The Importance of Temporal Changes: Thailand Example

As mentioned previously, international human trafficking is complicated by differing cultural customs of various countries, nations, or societies, and thus makes it difficult for a foreigner to understand the exact cause and nature of the trafficking problem. In addition, one thing that is sure to be constant is change, and thus as conditions change, the cause and nature of the foreign human trafficking crisis also changes. In turn, the effective solution or remedy may also change with time. Let’s use the human trafficking calamity in Thailand as an example to illustrate the above principles.

Serene rivers, expansive gorges, pristine beaches, luscious landscapes, and beautiful valleys are some of the natural wonders of Thailand that attract over 14 million tourists to visit this southeast Asian country annually. However, human sex trafficking was rampant in Thailand during the 1990s. The Thai government responded to the annual increase in victims by passing the Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Women and Children Act in 1997, and thus criminalized trafficking women and children for sexual exploitation with stiff penalties for violations, such as imprisonment ranging from a year to life. Protection of male victims was excluded in the law, but according to the United Nations (UN), a law has been drafted that allows for prosecution of trafficking male victims and has been finalized in 2006, but awaits passage through the Thai legislature.

Meanwhile, human trafficking is currently a $12 billion dollar industry in Thailand. What happened after the passage of the 1997 law was that the number of brothels dropped dramatically, but were replaced by other types of establishments, such as massage parlors, karaoke bars, cocktail lounges, beer bars, and cafes. In essence, people were trying to dodge the law, while the human sex trafficking trade continued as usual. Villagers in the northern region of Thailand were the most common victims of human trafficking. According to the 2001 Second World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, seventy percent of 800 families in one small Thai region, Mae Sai, had sold a daughter into prostitution. 

Siroj Sorajjakool, PhD, a professor at Loma Linda University, reported that the sex trade in Thailand had become less brutal and forced prostitution less common in the years immediately subsequent to the 1997 law. However, Dr. Sorajjakool noted that economic prostitution was rising, and the issue seemed to move away from forced sex into a form of debt bondage. In general, village girls were customarily more vulnerable to enter the sex trade due to their limited or absence of education, but more of the prostitutes were poor urban girls instead of village girls by 2001.

Dr. Sorajjakool pursued another research project in 2009 and interviewed more than 30 individuals who were working to combat the human trafficking dilemma in Thailand, the country coordinator for the UN Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking, various non-government organizations (NGOs), UN bureaus, and officers of the Thai government. He discovered the girls at Chiang Rai, a city located at the northernmost tip of Thailand, were the most vulnerable victims for entering the sex trade in 2009. Dr. Sorajjakool concluded that many of the villagers used to live and was quite content with a very simple life, but as capitalism and a culture of materialism slowly crept into the economically developing northern territory, these same villagers required more possessions than what their current financial resources could provide. At that point, the villagers from the Akha and Hmong tribes in the northern hills of Thailand sold family members, typically young daughters, into the sex trade to support the family’s newly accustomed lifestyle.

Dr. Sorajjakool’s research suggested families initially sold girls into the sex trade due to circumstances surrounding poverty, but as certain parts of Thailand grew economically more than other parts, it was the wealthier villages that were more likely to sell daughters into the sex trade, in order to maintain their current lifestyle or to acquire more materialism, i.e. to help pay for more material possessions. Thus, greed is a major reason why sexual exploitation of young girls continues to take place in Thailand. Therefore, approaching the human sex trafficking problem from an economic standpoint was not the correct solution, at least not in Thailand.

The United States Regulators & Enforcers

The U.S. Congress passed the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) in 2000 and created the initial comprehensive federal law to specifically address the issue of human trafficking, with an international focus. The TVPA has a 3-pronged p approach: (1) prevention through international public awareness programs and a State Department-led monitoring and sanctions program, (2) protection through a T Visa and services for foreign national victims, and (3) prosecution through new federal crimes along with severe penalties.

After September, 2001, the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, known as ICE, was charged with enforcing the TVPA because of the potential threat to homeland security presented by human trafficking. It was predominantly the fear that terrorists could access and follow the same travel routes and use the same methods of human sex traffickers that prompted ICE’s Human Smuggling and Trafficking Unit to identify individuals involved in human trafficking. It’s a pity that a federal agency, such as ICE, may not have be given the lead in enforcing the TVPA if it had not been for the 9/11 terrorist acts.

Another branch of the Department of Justice (DOJ), the FBI, also enforces the TVPA and in conjunction with the DOJ Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section and the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children launched the Innocence Lost National Initiative in June, 2003. These agencies’ combined efforts target the huge growth of domestic child/teen sex trafficking and have successfully rescued almost a thousand victims in 8 years. With an estimated 300,000 domestic minors at risk, rescuing an average of slightly over a hundred children per year can be perceived as barely touching the tip of the iceberg, but then again a thousand domestic children rescued from a life of sexual exploitation, especially given the difficult task of breaking the degradation/abandonment cycle of domestic child/teen prostitutes’ dependency on their pimps/traffickers, is a highly commendable accomplishment.

Both ICE and the FBI, in addition to local, state, and other federal law enforcement agencies, along with national victim-based advocacy groups, have participated in joint task forces that share their respective expertise and resources to combat the ever-growing criminal enterprise of domestic human sex trafficking. In addition, the Human Smuggling Trafficking Center (HSTC) was formed in 2004 and continues to serve as a hub or fusion center for human smuggling and trafficking information, and brings together analysts, investigators, officers, and experts from various agencies, including ICE, FBI, CIA, State Department, and Department of Homeland Security. Also, with DOJ funding, many jurisdictions across the land have developed human trafficking task forces to combat the problem at the very important local level because domestic human sex trafficking can take place anywhere and the battle against sex trafficking usually starts at the local enforcement level. Thus, state and local criminal justice officers must remain alert for signs of trafficking within their jurisdictions and meticulously follow up on the smallest clue or hint of sex trafficking.

What Can Civilians Do To Help Combat Human Sex Trafficking?

What can a civilian do to help counter the huge problem of human trafficking? At some point in every civilian’s life, they have to decide whether they’re going to be part of the problem, part of the solution, or part of the landscape. Without a conscious decision, most people remain part of the landscape by default, while others unknowingly remain part of the problem. Helping to enhance public awareness is a vital process that anyone can do, with some time spent on obtaining information and education on the problem and developing a fearless attitude toward speaking to people on a taboo subject.

Consider seeking assistance from or joining non-governmental organizations (NGOs) involved in battling sex trafficking. You can also familiarize yourself with the numerous websites that semi-overtly advertise for prostitution. Be wary that many of these porn sites showcase children/teens victimized by sex trafficking, but they are presented in ways that portray them as older girls who seem to enjoy sex and work for profit. Nothing is farther from the truth as most of these girls or boys live in captivity, under the worst conditions imaginable, and are typically pale, exhausted, and malnourished. By the way, most vice units are familiar with the common advertisement sites used by sex traffickers.

Other than vice squads on sting operations, patrol officers are often the first responders and thus the initial law enforcement officers to make contact with the child/teen prostitutes and their customers. Thus, enormous effort has been made to educate patrol officers on the signs of a victim of human sex trafficking. Therefore, civilians can also learn these signs, but I do not recommend any untrained civilian, no matter how smart he thinks he is, who he thinks he is, whether he’s the UFC mixed martial arts fighting champion or competition firearms shooting champion, to personally intervene and attempt a rescue; instead he should call local police about the signs of a possible victim of human sex trafficking that he personally witnessed or overheard.

Given that caveat, the signs that civilians can be aware of include criminal gang activity (possible violent and organized sex traffickers), when you overhear repeated acts of domestic violence or verbal disputes (which could represent a trafficker abusing a victim, or a customer having a dispute with a victim over money or the sex act to be performed), frequent foot traffic in and out of a house or facility, especially men, that seems similar to illegal drug dealings, a youth who claims to be older than (s)he appears, a young person without any form of identification, a minor who frequently enters a cheap motel alone or accompanied by a man, and especially if she is observed to be transported and dropped off by an adult man, a youth who seems to have limited knowledge about how to get around in the local community, an individual lacking personal possessions, persons who live on or near work premises, large number of occupants compared to living space, someone hanging out alone apparently because of the lack of or with restricted communication (no cell phone) and transportation, and a facility where you observe different persons are frequently picked up and dropped off (possible victims moved by traffickers). A single sign is just a general indicator, but a combination of multiple signs should increase your suspicion of the presence of human sex trafficking.

Particular locations, such as cheap motels, truck stops, strip clubs, massage parlors, and spas, are havens for child/teen prostitutes forced into sex trafficking. However, many people have apathy or an attitude of indifference to the awful situation of the victims forced into human sex trafficking. Therefore, such a person may see the same teen at a truck stop on numerous occasions and expresses his demeaning judgment or talks down to and yells at the youth. This person, at best, is part of the landscape and perhaps even part of the problem. A more compassionate and empathetic individual would likely suspect something is wrong and the youth is in need of help, not lecturing. However, I once again warn an untrained civilian not to directly intervene, but rather the best choice of action is usually to indirectly intervene by notifying local law enforcement about the signs that were witnessed.

It is a patrol officer who you will most likely speak to once (s)he arrives on the scene. Detectives may conduct a more thorough investigation if they feel it is warranted. After executing a search warrant, photographs are key to a successful prosecution because no words can describe the cramped filthy living quarter a victim is forced to reside in and thus the reminder of an invaluable old saying: A picture is worth a thousand words! If needed or if detectives are stumped, they may refer to federal resources and contact their local U.S. Attorney’s Office, ICE, or FBI field office.

Remember the common methods used by pimps/traffickers to control the victim: manipulating the degradation/abandonment cycle, verbal threats, physical bondage, locked room or brothel, forced drug addiction, physical assault, torture (frequently the convenient cigarette burns), and gang rape. Thus, as a physician, I have the personal opportunity to screen youths for physical signs of abuse, such as cigarette burns, bruises, blunt trauma, multiple bone fractures, but in different phases of healing, brands on the skin or scars that may indicate “ownership”, needle marks along a vein(s), and malnourishment. I also get a little suspicious if a third party strongly insists on interpreting for the youth. However, you may be able to pick up on some of these visible physical signs in non-medical settings, too.

As a criminal profiler, I can quickly scan a youth in a non-medical setting for emotional signs of victimization, such as hyper-vigilance specifically towards an adult companion, over-sensitivity to or obvious fear of displeasing an older escort, over-reliance or dependence on a male adult, and an older companion using degrading remarks alternating with threats of abandonment towards the youth. I have to admit that I can feel angry and sad if I frequently dwell on the fact that millions of international victims (mostly young females) are living at the present moment under horrible situations of modern-day slavery, driven by the sex traffickers’ primary motive of greed, and that suppliers are just trying to keep up with the high demand of sexually neurotic consumers who desire sex with minors. Luckily, I developed the ability at an early age of always finding peace by turning inwards and am soothed by my spiritual beliefs and receive consolation from my belief that I am trying my best, although I am only one person, to do what is morally right and not to give up and continue to try to guide humankind to grow spiritually, albeit one person at a time.

Tobey Leung, MD, FAAPMR

Board Certified Physiatrist

Criminal Profiler

Ninjutsu Grandmaster (10th degree black belt)

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